The Bretton Woods system established a new monetary order. The name comes from the place where the agreements were made, Bretton Woods, New Hampshire. This meeting took place in July 1944. The Bretton Woods system was an attempt to avert global economic disasters, such as the Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted about ten years. The financial crises of US President Richard Nixon`s term led to the end of the Bretton Woods system. During these years, the amount of dollars held abroad exceeded the value of gold reserves held by the United States at Fort Knox and elsewhere. This undermined the premise of the deal, which was that the US could still hedge its dollars with its gold equivalent. The Bretton Woods system is a set of uniform rules and guidelines that created the framework for the creation of fixed international exchange rates. Essentially, the agreement provided for the newly created IMF to set the fixed exchange rate for currencies around the world.
Each country represented took responsibility for maintaining the exchange rate, with incredibly tight margins above and below. Countries struggling to stay in the fixed exchange rate window could ask the IMF for an interest rate adjustment, which would then be the responsibility of all allied countries to comply. On December 17 and 18, 1971, the Meeting of the Group of Ten at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington created the Smithsonian Agreement, which devalued the dollar to $38 an ounce with trading bands of 2.25% and sought to balance the global financial system with SDRs alone. It was criticized at the time and was deliberately a “temporary” agreement. He failed to impose discipline on the U.S. government, and since there was no other credibility mechanism, the pressure against the gold dollar continued. A devastated Britain had little choice. Two world wars had destroyed the country`s main industries, which paid to import half of the country`s food and almost all its raw materials except coal.
The British had no choice but to ask for help. It was only when the United States signed an agreement on December 6, 1945, to provide Britain with $4.4 billion in aid, that the British Parliament ratified the Bretton Woods Accords (which took place later in December 1945).  The agreement created the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), US-backed organizations to oversee the new system. The IMF has attempted to provide for occasional and discontinuous exchange rate adjustments (changes in a member`s nominal value) through international agreements. Member States were allowed to adjust their exchange rates by 1%. This tended to restore the balance of their trade by increasing their exports and reducing their imports. This would only be allowed if there was a fundamental imbalance. A decrease in the value of a country`s currency was called a devaluation, while an increase in the value of the country`s currency was called a revaluation. The agreement limited the value of a currency and forced it to stay within a small range. Someone who had four pounds knew that those pounds were worth about a dollar. One of the main features of the Bretton Woods system was a fixed conversion between currencies and the US dollar and the US dollar and gold.
The value of the dollar was set at 1/35 of an ounce. The values of the other currencies were pegged to the US dollar. Those who owned other currencies that fell under the agreement always knew how many dollars they could get for their pounds sterling or French francs. International economic management relied on the dominant power, the United States, to manage the system. The concentration of power facilitated management by limiting the number of actors whose consent was required to establish rules, institutions and procedures and to carry out administration within the agreed system. Post-war world capitalism suffered from a huge shortage of dollars. The U.S. ran huge trade surpluses, and U.S.
reserves were huge and growing. This river had to be reversed. Although all countries wanted to buy U.S. exports, the dollars had to leave the U.S. and become available for international use to do so. In other words, the US should reverse the imbalances in global prosperity by posting a trade deficit financed by an outflow of US reserves to other countries (a US budget deficit). The United States could suffer from a financial deficit by importing, building factories or donating to foreign countries. Remember that speculative investments were prevented by the Bretton Woods agreements. Importing from other countries was not attractive in the 1950s, as American technology was up to date at the time.
Multinationals and U.S. global aid have flourished.  The intent of the SDR system was to prevent countries from buying indexed dollars and selling them at the higher free market price, and to give countries a reason to hold dollars by crediting interest, while setting a clear limit on the amount of dollars that can be held. The main conflict was that the American role as a military defender of the capitalist world economic system was recognized, but received no specific monetary value. In fact, other nations have “bought” US defense policy by accepting a loss by holding dollars. They were only willing to do so as long as they supported U.S. military policy because of the Vietnam War and other unpopular, pro-American actions. The consensus began to evaporate. The SDR agreement has indeed monetized the value of this relationship, but has not created a market for it. The support of money by the gold standard became a serious problem in the late 1960s. In 1971, the problem was so serious that US President Richard Nixon announced that the ability to convert the dollar into gold would be “temporarily” suspended.
This decision was inevitably the straw that broke the camel`s back for the system and the agreement it described. Despite the disintegration, the summit and the Bretton Woods agreement are responsible for a number of particularly important aspects in the financial world. First of all, there is the creation of the IMF and the World Bank. These two institutions are still of crucial importance to the global economy today. On a larger scale, however, the agreement united 44 countries from around the world and brought them together to resolve a growing global financial crisis. It has helped strengthen the global economy as a whole and maximized the profits of international trade. The Bretton Woods Agreement was reached in 1944 at a summit in New Hampshire, USA, at a site of the same name. The agreement was reached by 730 delegates, representing the 44 allied nations that attended the summit.
In simple terms, the gold standard is a system used to understand the value of money, and this means that a currency is compared to how much it is worth in gold and at what rate it can be exchanged for gold. to create a fixed exchange rate. Thirdly, the agreement aimed to promote economic growth among Member States by combining the stabilization of the value of currencies, the promotion of international trade and the creation of entities such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to help countries develop their economies. As you study to promote an international financial career path, professionals learn about the impact of international agreements such as Bretton Woods, as well as the institutions they create. Creating a sound international financial strategy means anticipating the impact of central bank announcements and actions managed by national governments and international bodies. Although the agreement was finalized in 1944, it did not enter into full force until 1958. The arrangement helped stabilize the value of the currencies concerned, and the IMF received contributions from member countries that it could lend to countries in need of additional financing. The Bretton Woods Agreement was a financial agreement negotiated in 1944 towards the end of World War II. .